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Showing posts from March, 2021

News and Updates


Social Media is effecting human life in many aspects like health,family relations, etc. So,I'll be discussing each aspect in detail below. Firstly, I would like to describe or define what is a social media,many of them may be know that,but I would just like to mention that. WHAT IS SOCIAL MEDIA? Social Media is a platform,computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas,thoughts and information through the building of virtual networks and communities.  Social media originated as a way to interact with friends and family but was later adopted by businesses that wanted to take advantage of a popular new communication method to reach out to customers. The power of social media is the ability to connect and share information with anyone on Earth, or with many people simultaneously. There are different types of social media namely, Social networks,Social news, Microblogging ,Bookmarking sites,Media sharing,Community blogs,social review sites,video hosting sites,Image shar

The cause of Overpopulation

 Popular knowledge directs the ire of a growingly unsustainable population at those in developing countries that form a part of the global poor and are unable to understand the immediate need to adopt family planning, and rightly so. However, this is not an inherent trait of certain sections of people and sociological reasons behind large families and overpopulation must be examined. These are: 1. High infant and childhood mortality : according to UNICEF one child dies every three seconds (6,500 per day) due to malnutrition and disease. It is an insurance to have more than you may need so that some of them reach adulthood.  2. Security in old age : the tradition in the family is that children will take care of their parents. The more children the more secure the parents, and the less the burden for each child. If there is no social welfare network, children look after their parents.  3. Children are an economic asset in agricultural societies:  They work on the land as soon as they are

Wastewater Pollutants and Treatment

Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food scraps, oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines and dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute their share of used water that must be cleaned.  We consider wastewater treatment as a water use because it is so interconnected with the other uses of water. Much of the water used by homes, industries, and businesses must be treated before it is released back to the environment. The term "wastewater treatment" is also known as "sewage treatment." Nature has an amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn't treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater also includes  storm runoff . A

National Vaccination Day

  The National Vaccination Day, also called the National Immunization Day, is celebrated every year on March 16 to convey the importance of vaccination to the entire nation. The day was first observed in the year 1995, the year on which India started Pulse Polio Programme. This year, the National Vaccination Day is important as the country has started its biggest Covid-19 immunization programme early this year and has already crossed the 30 million mark. According to the World Health Organization, immunization is a ‘health and development success story. It is the process through which an individual’s immune system becomes fortified against foreign harm causing agent. The vaccines train a person’s immune system to create antibodies. The vaccines are killed or weakened form of germs like viruses or bacteria that cannot cause disease but make antibodies that will safeguard the body when an active and strong form of the disease attacks the body. The National Vaccination day started w

Rights of Married Women in India

 Today, in a world that is increasingly becoming more well-connected and informed, women seem to be left behind as they are often denied the same access and privilege of information that men have. As a consequence, many women are trapped in situations wherein knowing their legal rights would aid them to overcome their difficulties. Hence, all women, especially married women, must know the rights that they have to prevent their own exploitation. First and foremost, a wife has the legal right to live in the matrimonial house, even after the husband dies. Even if the house is not owned by the husband, belongs to his parents, or is a rented apartment. In case of separation, she can stay at the marital house until an alternative is arranged for her or she goes to her parental house. There isn’t any directive in the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 that a married woman cannot stay at her parental house. She can lawfully stay, if and when she wants to. Secondly, according to the 2005 amendment

Poverty in the pandemic

Global extreme poverty is expected to rise for the first time in 20 years because of the disruption caused by COVID-19, exacerbating the impact of conflict and climate change, which were already slowing down poverty reduction, according to the World Bank. The pandemic may push another 88 million to 115 million into extreme poverty or having to live on less than $1.50 per day, resulting in a total of 150 million such individuals, the Bank said in its biennial Poverty and Shared Prosperity Report. Some 9.1% to 9.4% of the world will be affected by extreme poverty in 2020, the Bank said, compared to 7.9% in the counterfactual scenario where the pandemic had not raged across the world. Many of the newly poor individuals will be from countries that already have high poverty rates while many in middle income countries (MICs) will slip below the poverty line, as per the report. Some 82% of the total will be in MICs. Sub-Saharan Africa, with 27-40 million new poor, and South Asia, with 49-

Right to Life

Article 21, or the Right to Life, says that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. This article protects the right of life and personal liberty not only from executive action but also from the legislative action. This right extends to citizens as well as non-citizens. The Supreme Court has held that Part III of the constitution should be given widest possible interpretation and a fundamental right is not necessarily that one, which is specified in an article. Even if it is not specified in an article, but if it is integral part of a named fundamental right or partakes the same basic nature and character as that of a fundamental right. The interpretation of the Article 21 by the Supreme Court has opened a new chapter of human rights jurisprudence. In several cases, the court has held the following as implied fundamental rights, though not all of them have been specifically mentioned. These all are called Implied Fund

Ecological Footprint

 EF Two researchers in Canada, Rees and Wackernagel, first published a book on ecological footprints and their calculation in 1996. Since then, the concept has become widely accepted with many web site calculators designed to help you measure your footprint. EF is a model used to estimate the demands that human populations place on the environment. The measure takes into account the area of land and water required to provide all the resources needed by the population, and the assimilation of all wastes.  Where the EF is greater than the area available to the population, this is an indication of unsustainability as the population exceeds the carrying capacity of the population. EFs may vary significantly from country to country and person to person and include aspects such as lifestyle choices (EVS), productivity of food production systems, land use and industry. In 2012 it was calculated that the EF of all people on Earth was equivalent to 1.5 Earths or 2.7 global hectares (gha) per pe

Vaccine Passports

Vaccine passports are digital documents that are supposed to function as proof that the holder has been vaccinated against Covid-19 and is, therefore, 'safe.' The idea is modelled on the proof of vaccination that several countries required even before the pandemic - travelers from many African countries to the US or India are required to submit proof that they have been vaccinated against diseases such as yellow fever. Another key function that vaccine passports will perform is that of digitizing vaccination records across countries.  Last month, Israel became the first country to introduce a certification system that allows those who have been vaccinated against Covid-19 to access certain facilities and events. Vaccination against the novel coronavirus has been considered to be the inflection point at which life would start to get back to normal. Israel’s “vaccine passport” is meant for public facilities such as restaurants, gyms, and hotels in the country — but certification

Legal Status of same-sex marriage in India

All same-sex relationships were criminalized until the Supreme Court verdict of 2018 that decriminalized them. This was recognized as an important step towards social equality and to help the LGBTQ community achieve justice. However, it was only the beginning, and there are still areas wherein same-sex couples struggle to find legal recognition where heterosexual couples easily do. The most important one of these areas is marriage and all the privileges that come with it. Despite that landmark judgment, same sex couples' relationships have no legal status—making it difficult to transfer property rights, make medical decisions for each other in case one is incapacitated or, in short, enjoy rights heterosexual married couples in India take for granted.  Lack of legal recognition made many of the aspects of normalizing same-sex relationships increasingly difficult in bureaucracy-laden India. From refusals by banks to let them open a joint account to having a hard time establishing per

The Ozone Hole

Ozone is a reactive gas mostly found in the so-called ozone layer in the lower stratosphere. The highest ozone concentrations are usually seen at altitudes between 20 and 40 km (at the poles between 15 and 20 km). But it is a very thin layer of about 1-10 ppm (parts per million) ozone. In both the formation and the destruction of ozone, UV radiation is absorbed. Under the influence of UV radiation, oxygen molecules are split into oxygen atoms. The adsorption of UV radiation by the ozone layer is crucial, for without it, life on land would be impossible.  However, over-exposure to UV radiation will have a variety of damaging effects: Genetic mutation and subsequent effects on health, damage to living tissues, Cataract formation in eyes, skin cancers, suppression of the immune system, Damage to photosynthetic organisms, especially phytoplankton, damage to consumers of photosynthetic organisms, especially zooplankton.  UV radiation can cause mutations — changes in a species' DNA. This

International Women's Day

 International women's day is celebrated on the 8th of March all around the world, a tradition started in Soviet Russia as the soviet women gained suffrage in 1917. In some places, it is a public holiday, in some places, it is not; in some places, it is used as a day of protest and in some places, a day of celebration. Overall, it is a global celebration of women, their struggles and their contributions to the world. This year's UN theme for International Women's day is 'Women in leadership: Achieving an equal future in a COVID-19 world,' in the light of how female heads of state like Jacinda Ardern have responded to the pandemic in a way that should be inspiring for the rest of the world, proving that women are not fundamentally incompetent and in fact even serve as better leaders than men in many circumstances. Women's day everywhere should not serve as a day to simply contribute to appreciative gestures to women in men's lives as the function they serve i

The Draft Coastal Zone Management Plan (DCZM)

  The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF), in a notification of January 6, 2011, stated that it wanted to secure the livelihood of the fishing communities and other local communities living in the coastal areas, conserve and protect coastal stretches, their unique environment and marine area and promote development in a sustainable manner.  The CRZ notification 2011 declared that the coastal stretches of the country and India’s territorial waters, excluding Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands, as Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) and restricted the setting up and expansion of any industry, operations or processes and manufacture or handling or storage or disposal of hazardous substances there. It then directed the respective state governments and Union Territories to prepare Coastal Zone Management Plans (CZMP) by identifying and classifying the CRZ areas.  The Goa state department of environment handed over the responsibility of preparing the CZMP

Importance of Self Care

What is self-care? Self-care is a general term that describes everything you do deliberately for your mental, physical, and emotional well-being. As simple as it sounds, many of us pay little attention to self-care. This is why ‘deliberately' is one of the most important words in the definition. You need to be conscious of your well-being before you can achieve true self-care. It starts from the simple acts like not checking emails at night when you know it affects your sleep and extends to more important decisions like going for a vacation or booking a massage when you feel you need one. In a society in which people are expected to work long hours and pass on vacation days, there is an underlying belief that we must always be productive – which can ultimately take away from opportunities for self-care. But by taking some time out to engage in self-care, you may relieve the pressures of everyday life and reset yourself to get back to a healthy point where productivity is once again

Climate Change

The only environmental issue to have caused as much debate and discussion as climate change was probably human population growth. But that is, in some ways, clearer to deal with. We can count how many we are, more or less, and can see a direct effect of more people wanting to use more resources from a fixed stock. Climate change and global warming have become very emotive issues where national and international politics, global economics and the fate of national economies are all bound up with scientific debate about the evidence and cause and effect. Added to this are the questions of whether millions or billions will suffer, whether there wit be losers and winners if climate shifts to a new equilibrium and whether the power bases of different nations will be affected; you can begin to see what a complex issue this is. There are facts that are not in debate:  • There is a greenhouse effect  • GHG emissions are increasing due to human activities and are probably increasing the greenhou

World day of the fight against sexual exploitation

Every year since 2009, 4 th  March has been designated as World Day of the Fight Against Sexual Exploitation. Although there are exceptions, sexual exploitation overwhelmingly involves women and children, and it is a problem of worldwide proportions. It has been estimated that every second of the day an average of eight women, girls and often young boys, are trapped by international criminal networks where the sole aim is to sexually exploit them, traffic them and enslave them. This process obviously robs them of their basic human rights, including their right to freedom, their dignity, their right to live where they choose and the right to control their own bodies. Although the problem is a worldwide one, some places are more vulnerable than others. These include areas in Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and some Latin American and Caribbean countries. Trafficked women from these areas are generally taken to destination countries in the so-called developed world for the purposes of pros

Changes in the National Food Security Act

  The NITI Aayog recently circulated a discussion paper on a proposed revision in the National Food Security Act (NFSA), 2013. The NFSA provides a legal right to persons belonging to “eligible households” to receive foodgrains at subsidised price– rice at Rs 3/kg, wheat at Rs 2/kg and coarse grain at Rs 1/kg — under the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). These are called central issue prices (CIPs). A revision of CIPs is one of the issues that have been discussed. The other issues are updating of the population coverage under the NFSA, and beneficiary identification criteria. Under sub-section (1) of Section 3 of the Act, the term “eligible households” comprises two categories — “priority households”, and families covered by the Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY). Priority households are entitled to receive 5 kg of foodgrains per person per month, whereas AAY households are entitled to 35 kg per month at the same prices. Under Schedule-I of the Act, these subsidised prices were fixed

Soil Degradation

The problems of our time include climate change, loss of biodiversity, lack of drinking water, poor sanitation and the depletion of fuel wood supplies due to unsustainable rates of use. All of these are significant, but it could be argued that land degradation is the most pressing environmental and social problem facing society today, particularly affecting the world's poor.  It is estimated that an area equal to the size of China and India combined is now classified as having impaired biotic function (damaged ecosystem structure) as a result of poor land management resulting in soil loss. As populations expand, and as social and cultural changes occur, greater and greater demands are being made on larger areas of landscape and soil. In MEDCs where there has been a relatively long tradition of agriculture (agriculture on an industrial scale) there exists, within the agricultural culture, a knowledge of land management that aims for sustained soil fertility and strives to avoid soil